A lectin was isolated from elder (Sambucus nigra) bark by affinity chromatography on
fetuin-agarose. It is a tetrameric molecule (Mr 140000) composed of two different
subunits of Mr 34500 and 37500 respectively, held together by intramolecular
disulphide bridges. The lectin is a glycoprotein and is especially rich in asparagine/
aspartic acid, glutamine/glutamic acid, valine and leucine. It is also the first lectin
isolated from a species belonging to the plant family Caprifoliaceae.
Examples for the usage of glutamineIn catabolic states of injury and illness, glutamine becomes conditionally-essential (requiring intake from food or supplements). Glutamine has been studied extensively over the past 10–15 years and has been shown to be useful in treatment of serious illnesses, injury, trauma, burns, and treatment-related side-effects of cancer as well as in wound healing for postoperative patients. Glutamine is also marketed as a supplement used for muscle growth in weightlifting, bodybuilding, endurance, and other sports. Evidence indicates that glutamine when orally loaded may increase plasma HGH levels by stimulating the anterior pituitary gland. In biological research, L-glutamine is commonly added  to the media in cell culture.
 Aiding recovery after surgeryIt is also known that glutamine has various effects in reducing healing time after operations. Hospital-stay times after abdominal surgery can be reduced by providing parenteral nutrition regimes containing high amounts of glutamine to patients. Clinical trials have revealed that patients on supplementation regimes containing glutamine have improved nitrogen balances, generation of cysteinyl-leukotrienes from polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes, and improved lymphocyte recovery and intestinal permeability (in postoperative patients), in comparison to those that had no glutamine within their dietary regime, all without any side-effects.
Valine is an amino acid necessary for human health. It is known as a branched chain amino acid (BCAA). This amino acid functions as a stimulant and promotes muscle repair. It was first isolated in 1901 by Emil Fischer, a German chemist. Foods such as fish, cottage cheese, poultry, mushrooms, and brown rice are all high in this amino acid.
Also known as Val or simply V, this is one of the three BCAAs which are required for the human body to function properly. Leucine and isoleucine, in combination with it, account for 70% of the amino acids present in a human body's proteins. Valine is responsible for encouraging normal human growth, repairing tissue, and regulating blood sugar. A lack of this amino acid results in diminished mental functioning.
This substance is known as an essential amino acid, which means that the body cannot produce it on its own, and that dietary sources are necessary. It is possible to be deficient in valine, despite the abundance of natural sources available. Individuals on low-fat diets and those who do a great deal of strength training may need supplements, as they may not be getting enough of it in their food, or may be outstripping its ability to repair muscle tissue. A lack of it in the human body can cause nerve damage by degrading the nerves' myelin coverings, and this can lead to neurological disorders.